Type 2 Diabetes : Symptoms, Causes, Prevention and Treatment

Type 2 Diabetes : Symptoms, Causes, Prevention and Treatment

Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which blood sugar levels exceed normal values. High blood sugar levels are caused by the body not using the hormone insulin normally. The hormone insulin itself is a hormone that helps sugar (glucose) into body cells to be converted into energy.

Patients with type 2 diabetes can feel a variety of symptoms, some of which are the emergence of blackened body parts, difficult wounds to heal, to blurred vision. However, these symptoms take a long time to appear and feel the sufferer. In fact, the condition is potentially unnoticed until complications occur.

Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes

The following are some of the symptoms that can be experienced by people with type 2 diabetes:
  • Easy to thirsty.
  • Frequent urination, especially at night.
  • Often feel hungry.
  • The body feels tired.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Weight loss.
  • Difficult to recover when you have a wound.
  • There are several parts on the skin that is blackened.
Basically the symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes have several things in common. However, the symptoms of type 2 diabetes tend to take longer to arise. In fact, people with type 2 diabetes have the potential to feel no symptoms until complications occur. Therefore, it would be better to check blood sugar levels regularly, especially if you have a high risk.

Causes of Type 2 Diabetes

The pancreas produces the hormone insulin whose job is to help cells in the body convert sugars (glucose), which are obtained from food or produced by the liver, into energy. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body's cells cannot use insulin properly.

The cause of the disruption in the body's cells is not known with certainty. However, genes are suspected to be one of the trigger factors. The risk of a person experiencing this disease also increases when aged 45 years or more, and has family members who are also diabetics.

In addition to genes, type 2 diabetes is also thought to be triggered by the patient's condition and lifestyle. Some conditions that are suspected to be at risk of causing type 2 diabetes are:
  • Prediabetes.
  • Heart and blood vessel disorders.
  • Hypertension.
  • High triglycerides.
  • Obesity.
  • Gestational diabetes, diabetes that occurs during pregnancy.
  • PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome).
  • Agantosis nigrikans.
In addition to the conditions above, lifestyle also influences the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Some lifestyles that can increase a person's risk of developing this disease are:
  •  Lack of exercise.
  •  Smoke.
  •  Often stressed.
  •  Lack of rest.


Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes

In diagnosing type 2 diabetes, doctors generally perform a series of blood sugar tests. Blood sugar tests can also be different for each patient, including:
  1. HbA1C. This test is done to check the average blood sugar level in a period of 2-3 months.
  2. Fasting blood sugar test. This test aims to check blood sugar levels on an empty stomach. Patients will be asked to fast beforehand for 8 hours.
  3. Blood sugar tolerance test. After the patient is taken fasting blood sugar, the patient will be asked to drink a special sugar drink and return to check for blood sugar after 2 hours of drinking the sugar solution.
  4. Blood sugar test at any time. This test aims to check blood sugar levels at an unspecified time.
To ensure the results obtained, doctors use at least 2 types of blood tests. Doctors can also use other tests in the form of urine tests, checking cholesterol levels in the blood, as well as liver, kidney and thyroid function.

Type 2 Diabetes Treatment

There are several methods that can be used to treat type 2 diabetes. The doctor will determine the right method and according to the patient's condition.

Diet and exercise

This method needs to be done to treat diabetes, including type 2. In addition to reducing blood sugar levels, implementing a healthy lifestyle with regular exercise and eating a balanced nutritious diet can also reduce the risk of disease complications.

The doctor will advise patients to eat foods that are rich in fiber and low in fat. Consult further with your doctor about the types of foods that are good for consumption, and the types of exercise and their recommended frequencies. Provisions for diet and exercise for each person can be different, according to body conditions.


Doctors can also prescribe medication to patients with type 2 diabetes when handling it by applying a healthy lifestyle is not effective enough. Some medications that can be used to treat type 2 diabetes include:
  1.  Metformin, to reduce sugar production in the liver.
  2.  Meglitinide and sulfonylurea, to stimulate the work of the pancreas to produce more insulin. An example of a meglitinide drug is nateglinide, and an example of a sulfonylurea drug is glibenclamide.
  3.  DPP-4, to increase insulin production and reduce sugar production by the liver. An example of this drug is sitagliptin.
  4.  GLP-1 receptor agonist. Medicines can slow down the digestion of food, especially those containing sugar, while reducing blood sugar levels. For example exenatide.
  5.  SGLT2 inhibitors. This drug works by affecting the kidneys to get rid of more sugar. For example dapagliflozin.
Before using drugs, consult your doctor first, so that you can determine the type and dosage of the appropriate drug. The type and dosage that is not suitable have great potential to cause side effects.

In addition to medication, additional insulin can be given by a doctor by injection. This therapy can be used when other treatments are not effective. Insulin is available in various types, and each works in a different way. Discuss with your doctor about the types of injectable insulin.

Bariatric Operations

Overweight is one of the factors suspected of causing type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery functions to lose weight by changing the shape of the digestive tract so that much of the food consumed can be limited and absorbed nutrients can be reduced.

Complications of Type 2 Diabetes

Some complications of type 2 diabetes are classified as difficult to detect, even difficult. Some patients with type 2 diabetes:
  1.  Heart and blood vessel diseases, such as heart attacks, and strokes.
  2.  Nerve damage (diabetic neuropathy). This condition often occurs in the legs, with symptoms that appear can cause pain. In men, nerve damage is also related to sexy function.
  3.  Kidney damage (diabetic nephropathy). Severe damage can cause kidney failure.
  4.  Eye damage (diabetic retinopathy). Damage to blood vessels.
  5.  Hearing disorders.
  6.  Skin disorders, such as more easily infected with bacterial or viral infections.
  7.  Alzheimer's disease.

Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes

The risk of borrowing type 2 diabetes can be approved by adopting a healthy lifestyle. In addition to reducing risk, diabetes patterns can also prevent type 2 diabetes.

Some efforts can be made:
  1. Eating a balanced nutritious food. Choose foods that are high in fiber and low in fat and calories.
  2.  Exercise regularly. Do 30 minutes of exercise every day, for example released or swimming.
  3.  Maintain body weight. Maintain ideal body weight according to body mass index (BMI).

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